The Garden

Beginners Guide to Square Foot Gardening

As a suburban homesteader, the one thing I am most lacking (other than chickens) is space.  So in order to make the most of the space I do have, and in order to control my need to fill every open area of soil with plants (to their detriment). This year I have committed to attempting square foot gardening.  

Disclosure: Some of the links below are affiliate links, meaning, at no additional cost to you, I will earn a commission if you click through and make a purchase.

What is square foot gardening?

If you’ve done any research on square foot gardening then chances are you have heard of the guy who created it, Mel Bartholomew. He is was a civil engineer, who took up gardening in his retirement. He found the standard way of gardening inefficient, put on his thinking hat and the rest is history. If you want to go right to the source here is the newest edition of his book. It meant to be organic, with no use of fertilizers, insecticides, or pesticides. It really is the best way to make the most of every square inch of space.  So let’s imagine you have a garden that is 4×8. Congratulations, that means you have 24 square feet of planting space!

Does square foot gardening really work?

Yup, it does. I don’t think it hurts that the method was thought up by an engineer (generally very smart people). The basic principle is that you are giving each type of plant the spacing they require, without wasting any space. So it’s pretty much the garden equivalent of having your cake and eating it too.

Square foot gardening pros and cons

As with anything there are always going to be pros and cons. Square foot gardening requires plants to be put closer together than in “normal” gardening. On the plus side, this means it is easier to squeeze out weeds. On the negative side, you have to be on top of watering. You need to make sure your plants have enough nutrients and making sure to be very careful with companion plantings (more on that further down).

What soil to use

Square foot gardening typically calls for a lighter soil mix. You can easily purchase a pre-made product but it is easy enough to make yourself. The soil mix is usually made in a 1:1:1 ratio of 1/3 peat moss, 1/3 vermiculite and 1/3 compost. I like to make sure the compost is my own so that I know what it going into it. If you don’t already compost it is super easy (and beneficial) to get started making your own compost.

If you don’t have one of these amazing inventions already then you need this in your life. It’s called a seeding square. I had been planning on making my own square foot gardening squares. But this is a lot easier. Currently, I work a full-time job, have another side hustle making purses and I still have to take down our deck and revamp the backyard. So given all that, this seemed like the path of least resistance.

Set up your grid

There are many ways that you can set up your grid. One option is to use twine to mark off all the squares. You could also use sticks or stakes…or just eyeball it (but I wouldn’t recommend this). Another option if you want to get all fancy would be to make a PVC grid. In one of my Pinterest binges, I came across a PVC grid that could be hooked up to the hose and there were holes drilled in. So it had double duty as a grid for planting and a watering system. I may tackle this DIY in the future, but for now, I am just using my seeding square as a guide and then marking off the edges between the rows.

Seeding square for square foot gardening

Raised Beds or Containers

Square foot gardening was made for raised beds as they can easily be made to an exact size. Typically they range from 6” to 12” in height, but it’s up to you really. But you can also use it in containers or (as I am doing) right in the garden. I do plan to turn my current garden into a raised bed, but that will have to wait for next season.

What can you plant using square foot gardening

When you start square foot gardening, one of the most important things (other than setting up your grid) is knowing how many of each plant to put in the designated square foot. Once you know that, you just have to make sure you stick to the number of seeds that are recommended for each type of plant. If you don’t you will most likely undermine the benefit of this method. More seeds/plants don’t lead to more yield, but the right amount per square foot will give you a higher yield. Below is a general guideline…

  • Squash – 1 per square foot
  • Tomatoes – 1 per square foot
  • Peppers – 1 per square foot
  • Onions – 16 per square foot
  • Corn – 4 per square foot
  • Peas – 9 per square foot
  • Beans – 9 per square foot
  • Carrots – 16 per square foot
  • Lettuce – 4 per square foot

Square foot gardening and crop rotation

In order to ensure that your square foot garden is healthy and growing at its best, you need to make sure you include crop rotation. This involves making sure that you do not plant the same crop in the same place year after year. Different plants interact with the soil differently. Some add to the soil and others strip it of nutrients. So by employing crop rotation, you have the best chance of ensuring a good balance in the soil. It also helps to improve the structure of your soil and mitigate pests and diseases. This is a very important topic that deserves its own post, so stay tuned for one in the near future!

What to plant together

Given that square foot gardening leads to plants being put closer together than “normal” planting, it is doubly important to plant friends together. This is my segway into talking about companion planting and we need to talk about this as it is very important. Below are some of the benefits that come from paying attention to who is where in the seating plan…it’s important at weddings and also in your garden.

Provides shielding: One-way companion planting helps is that it can provide delicate plants with shelter from the wind or sun. This is achieved by growing them beside another plant with a natural defence against the harsher conditions. One way I am using this in my garden is to use a cucumber trellis (like this) and planting my lettuce underneath. The cucumber benefits from the sun. The trellis makes it easy to find and harvest the cucumbers (as they hang down through the grid). And the lettuce underneath gets shade from the cucumber plants above. Win-win!

Positive hosting: If you’re going to be stuck in close proximity then you want to make sure you are surrounded by friends. Companion planting to the process of planting your seedlings/plants besides other plants that help them to grow. Who knew this was a thing? Taking the time to do this will help to ensure that you get the most out of your efforts. Without unknowingly sabotaging your own success. You can click here to learn more about companion planting.

One thing to keep in mind is fennel, it is an insect magnet and not the good kind. So if you do want to plant it, make sure to keep it out of the main veggie garden and give it a place of its own. Who knew?

Have you tried square foot gardening before? How did it work out for you?


  • Mellisa
    April 24, 2019 at 11:19 pm

    Ohhhhh I love this post!!!! We had a garden a few years ago, but this makes me want to start one again!

    • Kir
      May 1, 2019 at 8:45 pm

      Wonderful Melissa! So glad this inspired you! I just love being able to feed my family with veggies I’ve grown!

  • Iris
    April 25, 2019 at 3:46 am

    This post is extremely helpful! I already have my garden set for this year, but I will be implementing these tips next year!

    • Kir
      May 1, 2019 at 8:44 pm

      Thanks Iris, I’m so glad you found this helpful

  • Kira
    April 25, 2019 at 7:35 pm

    This is so helpful! Especially the pairing- I feel like I always get tripped up because neighbors will hate each other! I know you mentioned you need to stay on top of watering: do you just water them all simultaneously or are there some that you ended up having a closer eye on?

    • Kir
      May 1, 2019 at 8:44 pm

      Hi Kira, in terms of watering the reason you need to keep an eye on them is that the plants are closer together and because they are in a raised bed. No special trick, and yes I water them all at the same time. You just want to make sure they don’t dry out

  • Jenny
    April 25, 2019 at 11:11 pm

    I love to garden and with a small area this blog will be helpful. Visuals are great too.

  • Suzy
    April 27, 2019 at 12:21 am

    This answered all my questions. So thorough, thank you so much.

  • Jen
    April 27, 2019 at 7:25 pm

    This is great info! Thanks for sharing!

  • Liz
    April 27, 2019 at 8:55 pm

    Thanks for laying this all out! I’m limited in where I can plant due to bad drainage issues on my property. The raised beds may help solve that problem.

    • Kir
      May 1, 2019 at 8:42 pm

      Thanks Liz! Raised beds should definitely help with drainage issues!

  • Sara
    May 1, 2019 at 8:24 pm

    Love this post really informative

  • Susan
    May 1, 2019 at 8:35 pm

    LOVE LOVE LOVE this!! Thanks so much!! Do you think you could possibly write one on an even smaller way to garden? We live in an apartment with a nice yard (not allowed to plant in it) and a patio…a container garden maybe? Blessings!

    • Kir
      May 1, 2019 at 8:41 pm

      Great idea Susan! I will be doing a future post on growing hydroponically, because I’m in love with my aerogarden Farm Plus which would actually be perfect for an apartment homestead!

  • Sophie
    April 4, 2020 at 10:16 pm

    I’m definitely going to have to try this out! Thanks for sharing!


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